There is a myriad of obstacles facing truckers on the road, and a chief complaint among them is the dizzying rules and regulations that come along with receiving tickets on the road. So, we’re here to set the record straight and lay down some facts surrounding CSA Scores.   

The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) is responsible for ensuring full compliance with all FMCSA regulations required of truck and bus companies regulated by the U.S. Department of Transportation.  

Safety violations are tracked by the SMS, then categorized under the Behavior Analysis and Safety Improvement Categories (BASICs) and later added to a score for the fleet the vehicle belongs to. If a fleet reaches a certain threshold (a higher percentile), it is flagged and prioritized for intervention by the FMCSA.  

There are seven BASICs categories—Unsafe Driving, Crash Indicator, Hours-of-Service (HOS) Compliance, Vehicle Maintenance, Controlled Substances/Alcohol, Hazardous Materials (HM) Compliance, and Driver Fitness. There is also an Acute and Critical sub-category of violations added to each BASIC category, whose values create automatic flags against a carrier in SMS.  

Below is a partial list of the different violations a driver can make and the corresponding severity weights impacting CSA scores. 

10 Severity Weights 

  • Operating on out-of-service vehicle – 396.9(c)(2)1 

8 Severity Weights 

  • Violating the airbrake restriction – 383.95(a)2 
  • Flat tire or fabric exposed – 393.75(a) 
  • Ply or belt material exposed on a tire – 393.75(a)(1) 
  • Tread or sidewall separation – 393.75(a)(2) 
  • Flat tire with or without an audible air leak – 393.75(a)(3) 
  • Cut exposing ply and/or belt material on a tire – 393.75(a)(4) 
  • Tire front tread depth less than 4/32 of an inch – 393.75(b)3 
  • Other tire tread depth less than 2/32 of an inch – 393.75(c)4 

7 Severity Weights 

  • Failure to use a seatbelt – 392.165 
  • Leaking/spilling/blowing/falling cargo – 393.100(b)6 
  • Short, over 1/3 length past structure – 393.116(d)(1) 
  • Short, insufficient, or missing tie downs – 393.116(d)(2) 
  • Short, tie downs improperly positioned – 393.116(d)(3) 
  • Short, no center stakes/high log not secured – 393.116 
  • Short, length; improper securement – 393.116(d)(4) 
  • Improper placement of bundles – 393.118(b)7 
  • Coil/vertical improper securement – 393.120(b)(1) 
  • Coils, rows, eyes vertical improper securement – 393.120(b)(2) 
  • Coil/eye crosswise improper securement – 393.120(c)(1) 
  • X-pattern on coils with eyes crosswise – 393.120(c)(2) 
  • Coil with eye lengthwise improper securement – 393.120(d)(1) 
  • Coils, rows, eyes length improper securement – 393.120(d)(4) 
  • Rolls vertical – improper securement – 393.122(b)8 
  • Rolls vertical/split – improper securement – 393.122(c) 
  • Rolls vertical/stacked – improper securement – 393.122(d) 
  • Rolls crosswise – improper securement – 393.122(e) 
  • Rolls crosswise/stacked load – improper securement- 393.122(f) 
  • Rolls length – improper securement – 393.122(g) 
  • Rolls lengthwise/stacked – improper securement – 393.122(h) 
  • Improper securement – rolls on flatbed/curtain sided vehicle – 393.122(i) 
  • Improper blocking of concrete pipe – 393.124(c)9 
  • Improper arrangement of concrete pipe – 393.124(d) 
  • Improper securement, up to 45 inches diameter – 393.124(e) 
  • All corners of chassis not secured – 393.126(c)(2) 
  • Improper securement, over 45 inches diameter – 393.124(f)10 
  • Front and rear end of container not secured independently – 393.126(c)(3) 
  • Empty container, more than five foot overhang – 393.126(d)(2) 
  • Empty container not properly secured – 393.126(d)(4) 
  • Empty container not positioned properly – 393.126(d)(1) 
  • Front and rear of vehicle not secured – 393.128(b)(1) 
  • Tie downs not affixed to mounting points – 393.128(b)(2) 
  • Tie downs not over or around wheels – 393.128(b)(3)11 
  • Item not properly prepared for transport – 393.130(b) 
  • Improper restraint/securement of item – 393.130(c) 
  • Insufficient means to retain loose parts – 393.132(c)(5) 
  • Container not secured to the front of the vehicle – 393.134(b)(2) 
  • Rear of the container not properly secured – 393.134(b)(3) 
  • Improper placement/positioning of boulder – 393.136(b)12 
  • Boulder not secured with chain; Use of webbing – 393.136(c)(1) 
  • Improper securement – cubic boulder – 393.136(d) 
  • Improper securement – non-cubic boulder with stable base – 393.136(e) 
  • Improper securement – non-cubic boulder with unstable base – 393.136(f)13 
  • Axle positioning parts defective or missing – 393.207(a) 
  • Adjustable axle locking pin missing or disengaged – 393.207(b) 
  • Leaf spring assembly defective or missing – 393.207(c) 
  • Coil spring cracked and/or broken – 393.207(d) 
  • Torsion bar cracked and/or broken – 393.207(e) 
  • Air suspension pressure loss – 393.207(f)14 

6 Severity Weights 

  • Inoperative headlamps – 393.9H 
  • Inoperative tail lamp – 393.9T 
  • Inoperative turn signal – 393.9TS15 
  • Either none, or defective lamps, on a towing unit in a tow-away operation – 393.17(a) 
  • Either none, or defective, tow-away lamps on rear unit – 393.17(b) 
  • Inoperative and/or defective hazard warning lamp – 393.19 
  • Non-compliance with headlamp requirements – 393.24(a) 
  • Non-compliant fog and/or driving lamps – 393.24(b)16 
  • Lamps are not visible as required – 393.25(b) 
  • Lamp not steady burning – 393.25(e) 
  • Stop lamp violations – 393.25(f)17 
  • Operating a CMV with lamps or reflectors obscured – 392.3318 
  • Steering wheel not secured or is broken – 393.209(a) 
  • Excessive steering wheel lash – 393.209(b) 
  • Loose steering column – 393.209(c)14 
  • Steering system components worn/welded/missing – 393.209(d) 
  • Power steering violations – 393.209(e)19 

4 Severity Weights 

  • No pre-trip inspection – 392.720 
  • Inadequate brake system on a CMV – 393.40 
  • None, or defective, parking brake system on a CMV – 393.41 
  • No brakes as required – 393.42 
  • Brakes missing on a trailer steering axle – 393.42A BM-TSA 
  • No, or improper, breakaway or emergency braking – 393.43 
  • No, or improper, tractor protection valve – 393.43(a) 
  • No, or defective, automatic trailer brake – 393.43(d)17 
  • Failing to secure brake hose/tubing against mechanical damage – 393.45 
  • Brake hose or tubing chafing or kinking at the connection to the power unit – 393.45(b)(2) 
  • Brake connections with constrictions at the connection to the power unit – 393.45DCPC21 
  • Brake connections with leaks at the connection to the power unit – 393.45DLPC 
  • Brake connections with leaks under the vehicle – 393.45DLUV 
  • Inadequate brakes for safe stopping – 393.47(a) 
  • Mismatched brake chambers on the same axle – 393.47(a) 
  • Mismatched slack adjuster effective length – 393.47(b)22 
  • Insufficient brake linings – 393.47(d) 
  • Either the clamp or roto-chamber type brake out of adjustment – 393.47(e) 
  • Wedge type brakes out of adjustment – 393.47(f) 
  • Insufficient drum or rotor thickness – 393.47(g) 
  • Either inoperative or defective brakes – 393.48(a) 
  • Defective brake limiting device – 393.48(b)(1)23 
  • Either none, or defective, air reservoir drain valve – 393.50(d) 
  • Either none, or defective, brake warning device – 393.51 
  • Insufficient braking force as percent of Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW) or Gross Combined Weight (GCW) – 393.52(a)(1) 
  • Violation on an automatic brake adjuster, for a hydraulic brake, on a CMV manufactured on or after 10/20/1993 – 393.53(a) 
  • Violation on an automatic brake adjuster, for an air brake, on a CMV manufactured on or after 10/20/1994 – 393.53(b)24 
  • Violation of an external automatic adjustment indicator on a CMV manufactured on or after 10/20/1994 – 393.55BMAN 
  • ABS – malfunctioning lamps towed CMV manufactured on or after 3/1/1998, manufactured before 3/1/2009 – 393.55(b)25 

3 Severity Weights 

  • Failing to dim headlights when required – 392.2DH 
  • Lane restriction violations – 392.2LV26 
  • No or defective rear vision mirror – 393.8027 
  • Upper retroreflective sheeting and/or reflex reflectors on trailers manufactured on or after 12/1/1993 – 393.13(d)(3)16 
  • No retroreflective sheeting or reflex reflectors on mud flaps of a truck tractor manufactured on or after 7/1/1997 – 393.11TL 
  • No retroreflective sheeting/reflex reflectors on truck tractor manufactured on or after 7/1/1997 – 393.11TT 
  • No upper body corners retroreflective sheeting/reflex reflectors on truck tractor manufactured on or after 7/1/1997 – 393.11TU 
  • No upper reflex reflectors retroreflective sheeting/reflex reflectors on trailer manufactured on or after 12/1/1993 – 393.11UR 
  • Retroreflective tape not affixed as required for trailers manufactured after 12/1/1993 – 393.13(a) 
  • No retroreflective sheeting or reflex reflective material as required for vehicles manufactured on or after 12/1/1993 – 393.13(b)28 
  • No side retroreflective sheeting or reflex reflective material as required for vehicles manufactured before 12/1/1993 – 393.13(c)(1) 
  • No lower rear retroreflective sheeting or reflex reflective material as required for vehicles manufactured before 12/1/1993 – 393.13(c)(2) 
  • No upper rear retroreflective sheeting or reflex reflective material as required for vehicles manufactured before 12/1/1993 – 393.13(c)(3) 
  • Improper side placement of retroreflective sheeting or reflex reflective material as required for vehicles manufactured on or after 12/1/1993 – 393.13(d)(1) 
  • Improper lower rear placement of retroreflective sheeting or reflex reflective material requirements for vehicles manufactured before 12/1/1993 – 393.13(d)(2)29 
  • Upper rear retroreflective sheeting or reflex reflective material as required for vehicles manufactured on or after 12/1/1993 – 393.13(d)(3)28 
  • Violation of requirements for reflectors – 393.26 
  • Improper, or no, wiring protection as required – 393.28 
  • Improper battery operation – 393.3017 
  • Compressed natural gas (CNG) fuel container does not conform to regulations – 393.68 
  • Defective or improper fifth wheel assemblies – 393.7030 
  • Defective or improper fifth wheel assembly upper half – 393.70B1II31 
  • Defective fifth wheel locking mechanism – 393.70(b)(2) 
  • Defective coupling devices for full trailer – 393.70(c) 
  • Either none, or improper, safety chains or cables for full trailer – 393.70(d) 
  • Improper safety chain attachment – 393.70(d)(8)32 
  • Improper coupling on a drive-away/tow-away operation – 393.71 
  • Prohibited towing connection or device – 393.71(g) 
  • Towbar requirement violations – 393.71(h) 
  • Either none, or improper, safety chains or cables for tow bar – 393.71(h)(10)33 
  • Regrooved tire on the front wheel of a truck/tractor-trailer – 393.75(e) 
  • Violation of the load weight rating, or underinflated, tires – 393.75(f)(2)34 
  • Sleeper berth requirement violations – 393.76 
  • Defective and/or prohibited heaters – 393.77 
  • Violation of protection of operating controls from tampering – 393.77(b)(5) 
  • Horn inoperative – 393.81 
  • Inoperative or inadequate speedometer – 393.8227 
  • Improper securement system (tie down assemblies) – 393.10235 
  • Insufficient means to prevent forward shifting – 393.102(a)(1)(i) 
  • Insufficient means to prevent lateral movement – 393.102(a)(1)(iii) 
  • Insufficient means to prevent vertical movement – 393.102(b) 
  • Knotted tie down – 393.104(f)(1) 
  • Use of a tie down with improper repair – 393.104(f)(2) 
  • Loose or unfastened tie down – 393.104(f)(3) 
  • No edge protection for tie downs – 393.104F4R 
  • Cargo not immobilized or secured – 393.106(b)36 
  • No means to prevent cargo from rolling – 393.106(c)(1) 
  • Cargo without direct contact/prevention from shifting – 393.106(c)(2) 
  • Insufficient aggregate working load limit – 393.106(d) 
  • Insufficient tie downs; without header board/blocking – 393.110(b) 
  • Large or odd-shaped cargo not adequately secured – 393.110(d)37 
  • Insufficient protection against lateral movement – 393.118(d) 
  • Insufficient or improper arrangement of tie downs – 393.118(d)(3)38 
  • No protection against shifting/tipping – 393.120(e)39 
  • Insufficient working load limit for concrete pipes – 393.124(b)40 
  • Insufficient tie downs per stack cars – 393.132 
  • No blocking against forward movement – 393.134(b)(1)41 

2 Severity Weights 

  • Failure to inspect or use emergency equipment – 392.8 
  • Failing to, or improper placement of, warning devices – 392.22(b)42 
  • Inoperative required lamps – 393.943 
  • Required lamp not powered by vehicle electricity – 393.2344 
  • Frame cracked, loose, sagging, broken – 393.201(a) 
  • Cab/body parts requirement violations – 393.203 
  • Cab door missing or broken – 393.203(a) 
  • Cab or body improperly secured to the frame – 393.203(b) 
  • Hood not securely fastened – 393.203(c)45 
  • Cab seats not securely mounted – 393.203(d) 
  • Cab front bumper missing, unsecured or protruding – 393.203(e) 
  • Wheel or rim cracked or broken – 393.205(a) 
  • Stud or bolt holes elongated on wheels – 393.205(b) 
  • Wheel fasteners loose or missing – 393.205(c)46 
  • Inadequate floor condition – 393.8447 
  • Either none or improper rear end protection – 393.86 
  • Violation of rear impact guards on motor vehicles manufactured on or after 12/31/1952 – 393.86(b)(1)48 
  • Improperly located television receiver – 393.88 
  • Seatbelts not installed – 393.93(b)48 
  • Either missing, or discharged, or unsecured fire extinguisher – 393.95(a) 
  • Missing spare fuses – 393.95(b) 
  • Either missing or insufficient warning devices – 393.95(f)35 
  • Violation of inspection and repair and maintenance of parts and accessories – 396.3(a)(1)49 
  • No visible or measurable lubricant showing in the hub of the outer wheel – 396.5(a)50 
  • Oil and/or grease leaking from hub on outer wheel – 396.5B-HLOW 
  • Leaking wheel seal on outer wheel – 396.5B-HWSLOW1 

1 Severity Weight 

  • Unlawfully parking or leaving a vehicle on a roadway – 392.2PK26 
  • Failure to secure load – 392.9(a) 
  • Failure to secure vehicle equipment – 392.9(a)(2) 
  • Driver’s view and/or movement is obstructed – 392.9(a)(3) 
  • Failure to use hazard warning flashers – 392.22(a)42 
  • Unauthorized passengers onboard a CMV – 392.60(a)51 
  • Failure to prevent cargo shifting – 393.10035 
  • Failing to meet minimum tie down requirements – 393.11037 
  • Either none or improper securement of metal coils – 393.12039 
  • Either none or improper heavy vehicle/machinery securement – 393.13041 
  • Obstructed windshield – 393.60EWS 
  • Damaged or discolored windshield – 393.60(c) 
  • Glazing which allows less than 70% of light – 393.60(d) 
  • Inadequate or missing truck side windows – 393.61 
  • Emergency exit window not properly marked – 393.62(e)52 
  • Improper location of fuel system – 393.65(b) 
  • Improper securement of fuel tank – 393.65(c) 
  • Improper fuel line protection – 393.65(f) 
  • Fuel tank fill pipe cap missing – 393.67(c)(7)30 
  • Inoperative or defective windshield wipers – 393.78 
  • Inoperative or defective defroster/defogger – 393.79 
  • Violation of exhaust system location – 393.83(a) 
  • Violation of exhaust discharge fuel tank/filler tube – 393.83(b)53 
  • Improper exhaust discharge (not located at rear of cab) – 393.83(e) 
  • Improper exhaust system repair (patch/wrap) – 393.83(f) 
  • Exhaust leak under truck cab and/or sleeper – 393.83(g) 
  • Exhaust system not securely fastened – 393.83(h)47 
  • Missing required warning flag on a projecting load – 393.87(a) 
  • Improper warning flag placement – 393.87(b)48 
  • Inadequate or damaged securement device or system – 393.104(a) 
  • Damaged securement system or tie downs – 393.104(b) 
  • Damaged vehicle structures or anchor points – 393.104(c) 
  • Damaged dunnage, or load bars, or blocking/bracing – 393.104(d) 
  • Either none or improper front-end structure/header board – 393.106(a)36 
  • Tie down not adjustable by driver – 393.112 
  • Either none or improper front-end structure – 393.114 
  • Insufficient height on front-end structure – 393.114(b)(1) 
  • Insufficient width on front-end structure – 393.114(b)(2)37 
  • Front-end structure with large openings – 393.114(d) 
  • Either missing or improper securement of logs (lumber) – 393.116 
  • Either none or improper lumber/building materials securement – 393.11838 
  • Either none or improper securement of paper rolls – 393.122(b)39 
  • Either none or improper securement of concrete pipe – 393.124(a)40 
  • Lower corners of container not on vehicle/structure – 393.126(c)(1) 
  • Fail to ensure intermodal container secured – 393.126 
  • Damaged or missing tie downs or securement devices – 393.126(b)54 
  • Either none or improper securing of vehicle – 393.12855 
  • Either none or improper securement of crushed vehicles – 393.132 
  • Prohibited use of synthetic webbing – 393.132(b) 
  • Either none or improper securement of roll/hook containers – 393.134 
  • Either none or improper securement of large boulders – 393.13641 
  • Driving of a vehicle (migrant workers) – 398.451 

Creating safer roadways for truckers is our #1 priority. And we believe that understanding the different violations, and the ripple effects they make, can help keep you protected on the road. Remember, if you ever do happen to get a ticket on the road, call the experts at ORDP. We match you with an expert attorney that handles the case from start to finish while you keep on truckin’ – and now we offer DataQ Challenges to help reverse marks made against your driving record.  Apply here

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 ARTICLE SOURCES 

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